Cigarette smoking, Outcome expectancies, Emotional vulnerability, Negative affectivity, Emotional dysregulation, Anxiety sensitivity
The present investigation examined whether smoking outcome expectancies, as measured by the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire (SCQ; [Brandon, T.H., & Baker, T.B., (1991). The Smoking Consequences Questionnaire: The subjective expected utility of smoking in college students. Psychological Assessment, 3, 484–491.]), were incrementally related to emotional vulnerability factors among an adult sample of 202 daily cigarette smokers (44.6% women; Mage= 23.78 years, SD = 9.69 years). After controlling for cigarettes smoked/day, past 30-day marijuana use, current alcohol consumption, and coping style, negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction outcome expectancies were significantly associated with greater levels of negative affectivity, emotional dysregulation, and anxiety sensitivity. The observed effects for negative reinforcement/negative affect reduction also were independent of shared variance with other outcome expectancies. Negative personal consequences outcome expectancies were significantly and incrementally related to anxiety sensitivity, but not negative affectivity or emotional dysregulation. Findings are discussed in terms of the role of negative reinforcement/ negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies and clinically-relevant negative emotional vulnerability for better understanding cigarette smoking-negative mood problems
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Johnson, K. A., Zvolensky, M. J., Marshall, E. C., Gonzalez, A., Abrams, K., & Vujanovic, A. A. (2008). Linkages between cigarette smoking outcome expectancies and negative emotional vulnerability. Addictive Behaviors, 33, 1416-1424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.05.001