Nicotine dependence, Smoking, Panic disorder, Biological challenges, Comorbidity
A wide array of biological challenge procedures – including carbon dioxide inhalation, hyperventilation, and breath holding – have been used to model panic in laboratory settings. Originally used to study developmental processes in panic disorder (PD), these procedures, along with nicotine patch administration and self-administered smoking, have recently been applied to help understand the etiology of co-occurring nicotine dependence and PD. The goals of the present paper are to review studies that have employed biological challenges to study the comorbid condition, identify the advantages and limitations of the various procedures, describe desirable outcome measures for use in biological challenges, and present recommendations for future challenge studies in this field. We argue that biological challenges, though in need of standardization, are useful for studying the development, maintenance, prevention, and treatment of comorbid nicotine dependence and PD.
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Abrams, K., Schruers, K., Cosci, F., & Sawtell, S. (2008). Biological challenge procedures used to study co-occurring nicotine dependence and panic disorder. Addictive Behaviors, 33, 1463-1469. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.02.018